2型糖尿病

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

2型糖尿病is a lifelong disease that keeps your body from using胰岛素它应该的方式。2型糖尿病的人,据说有胰岛素抵抗。

人们谁是中年以上的老年人是最有可能得到这样的糖尿病,因此过去被称为成人发病型糖尿病。但是,2型糖尿病也影响孩子,青少年, mainly because ofchildhood obesity

这是最常见的类型糖尿病。大约有2900万人在美国与类型2的另一个84000000已prediabetes, meaning their blood sugar (or blood glucose) is high but not high enough to be diabetes yet.

Signs and Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes

The2型糖尿病的症状可以很温和,以至于你没有注意到他们。约800万人谁拥有它不知道它。症状包括:

  • 存在very thirsty
  • Peeing a lot
  • 视力模糊
  • 存在cranky
  • 在你的手中刺痛或麻木或feet
  • Fatigue/feeling worn out
  • Wounds that don't heal
  • 酵母菌感染that keep coming back
  • 饥饿
  • Weight loss without trying
  • 获得更多的感染

rashes在你的脖子或腋窝(称为黑棘皮症),常常胰岛素抵抗的标志

Causes of Type 2 Diabetes

Yourpancreas使得称为胰岛素的激素。它可以帮助你的细胞把葡萄糖,糖的类型,从你吃成能量的食物。与人2型糖尿病make insulin, but their cells don't use it as well as they should.

At first, yourpancreasmakes more insulin to try to get glucose into your cells. But eventually, it can't keep up, and the glucose builds up in your blood instead.

通常情况下,一个事物的组合引起2型糖尿病。They might include:

  • 基因。Scientists have found different bits of DNA that affect how your body makes insulin.
  • 额外重量存在超重orobesecan cause insulin resistance, especially if you carry your extra pounds around your middle.
  • 代谢综合征与人胰岛素resistance often have a group of conditions including high blood sugar, extra fat around the waist,高血压, and高胆固醇andtriglycerides
  • 从过多的葡萄糖当你的血糖is low, your liver makes and sends out glucose. After you eat, your blood sugar goes up, and your liver will usually slow down and store its glucose for later. But some people's livers don't. They keep cranking out sugar.
  • Bad communication between cells.有时,细胞发出错误的信号或不正确地拿起消息。当这些问题影响您的电池制造和使用胰岛素或葡萄糖,连锁反应会导致糖尿病。
  • 残破的β细胞。如果细胞,使胰岛素在错误的时间发出胰岛素的量错了,你的血糖被揭去。高血糖会损害这些细胞了。

继续

2型糖尿病的危险因素

Certain things make it more likely that you’ll get type 2 diabetes. The more of these that apply to you, the higher your chances of getting it are. Some things are related to who you are:

  • 年龄:45岁以上
  • 家庭:A parent, sister, or brother with diabetes
  • Ethnicity:African American, Alaska Native, Native American, Asian American, Hispanic or Latino, or Pacific Islander American

Risk factors related to your health and medical history include:

Other things that raise yourrisk of diabeteshave to do with your daily habits and lifestyle. These are the ones you can do something about:

2型糖尿病Diagnosis and Tests

Your doctor can test your blood for signs of type 2 diabetes. Usually, they’ll test you on two days to confirm the diagnosis. But if your blood glucose is very high or you have many symptoms, one test may be all you need.

  • A1c.这就像一个平均血糖在过去2个或3个月。
  • 禁食血浆葡萄糖。This is also known as a fasting blood sugar test. It measures your blood sugar on an empty。You won't be able to eat or drink anything except water for 8 hours before the test.
  • Oral葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT).This checks your blood glucose before and 2 hours after you drink something sweet to see how your body handles the

2型糖尿病胎面tment

Managing type 2 diabetesincludes a mix of lifestyle changes and medication.

Lifestyle changes

You may be able to reach your target血糖水平with diet and exercise alone.

  • Weight loss.删除多余的重量可以提供帮助。虽然失去了5%,你的身体重量的10%是好的,失去了7%,并保持它关闭似乎是理想的。这意味着有人谁重180磅,可以通过周围失去13磅改变他们的血糖水平。减肥似乎势不可挡,但部控制and eating healthy foods are a good place to start.
  • 健康eatingThere’s no specific diet for type 2 diabetes. A registered dietitian can teach you about carbs and help you make a meal plan you can stick with. Focus on:
    • Eating fewer calories
    • 削减精制碳水化合物,尤其是甜食
    • 添加蔬菜和水果,以你的饮食
    • Getting more fiber
  • Exercise.Try to get 30 to 60 minutes ofphysical activity每天。您可以步行,骑自行车,游泳,或做别的事,得到您的心率起来。一对带strength training, like瑜伽或举重。如果采取降低血糖的药物,你可能需要一个小吃前锻炼。
  • Watch your blood sugar levels:Depending on your treatment, especially if you’re on insulin, your doctor will tell you if you need to test your blood sugar levels and how often to do it.

继续

药物

如果生活方式的改变不能让你到你的目标的血糖水平,你可能需要药物治疗。一些最常见的2型糖尿病的包括:

  • Metformin(Fortamet,格华止,Glumetza,Riomet). This is usually the first medication used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers the amount of glucose your liver makes and helps your body respond better to the insulin it does make.
  • Sulfonylureas.这组药物可以帮助你的身体使更多的胰岛素。它们包括格列美脲(Amaryl),glipizide(Glucotrol,Metaglip), andglyburide(DiaBeta,Micronase).
  • 格列奈类。They help your body make more insulin, and they work faster than sulfonylureas. You might take那格列奈(Starlix) orrepaglinide(Prandin).
  • Thiazolidinediones.Like metformin, they make you more sensitive to insulin. You could getpioglitazone(Actos) orrosiglitazone(Avandia). But they also raise your risk ofheartproblems, so they aren’t usually a first choice for treatment.
  • DPP-4 inhibitors.These medications -- linagliptin (Tradjenta), saxagliptin (Onglyza), andsitagliptin(的Januvia) -- help lower your blood sugar levels, but they can also cause关节痛and could inflame your pancreas.
  • GLP-1 receptor agonists.You take these medications with a needle to slow digestion and lower blood sugar levels. Some of the most common ones are艾塞那肽(Byetta的,Bydureon),利拉鲁肽(Victoza), and司美鲁(Ozempic).
  • SGLT2抑制剂。These help your kidneys filter out more glucose. You might get canagliflozin (Invokana),达格列净(Farxiga), or恩格列净(Jardiance)。
  • 胰岛素。You might take long-lasting shots at night, such as insulin detemir (Levemir) or insulin glargine (来得时).

2型糖尿病预防

Adopting a healthy lifestyle can help you lower your risk of diabetes.

  • Lose weight删除你的体重的7%〜10%,可减少一半的2型糖尿病的风险。
  • Get active.Thirty minutes of brisk步行每天将几乎三分之一砍你的风险。
  • 吃好喝好。避免高度加工的碳水化合物,含糖饮料,和反式脂肪和饱和脂肪。限制红肉和加工肉类。
  • Quit smokingWork with your doctor to keep from gaining weight after you quit, so you don't create one problem by solving another.

继续

2型糖尿病并发症

随着时间的推移,高血糖会损害并导致您的问题:

  • 心脏和血管。You’re up to five times more likely to get heart disease or have a stroke. You’re also at high risk of blocked blood vessels (atherosclerosis) and chest pain (angina).
  • 肾脏如果你的肾脏受损,或者你有肾功能衰竭,你可以需要透析或肾脏替代品。
  • EyesHigh blood sugar can damage the tiny blood vessels in the backs of your eyes (retinopathy). If this isn’t treated, it can cause blindness.
  • Nerves.This can lead to trouble with digestion, the feeling in your feet, and yoursexual response
  • 皮肤。你的血液不流通,所以他的伤口al slower and can become infected.
  • 怀孕。女性糖尿病人更容易有流产,死胎,或出生缺陷婴儿。
  • 睡觉。你可能会制定睡眠呼吸暂停,在你的呼吸停止,并开始在你睡觉的条件。
  • Hearing.You’re more likely to have hearing problems, but it’s not clear why.
  • 脑。高血糖会损害你的大脑,可能让你在阿尔茨海默氏症的风险较高。

为了避免这些并发症,最好的办法是管理你的2型糖尿病好。

  • 拿上你的时候降糖药或胰岛素。
  • 检查你的血糖。
  • Eat right, and don't skip meals.
  • See your doctor regularly to check for early signs of trouble.
WebMD Medical Reference 来自Minesh Khatri, MDon November 06, 2019

Sources

SOURCES:

American Diabetes Association: "Statistics About Diabetes," "Type 1 Diabetes," "Type 2," "Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes."

医学美国国家图书馆:“糖尿病在儿童和青少年。”

克利夫兰诊所:“糖尿病学习模块”,“预防糖尿病并发症”。

国家糖尿病信息中心:“糖尿病的原因。”

国际糖尿病联合会:“预防”,“糖尿病并发症”。

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Joslin Diabetes Center: "Common Questions About Type 2 Diabetes."

卡罗来纳医疗系统:“酵母感染和糖尿病:你应该知道的。”

梅奥诊所:“2型糖尿病”。

LiverTox:“第二代磺脲类药物。”

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: “Type 2 Diabetes.”

Harvard Medical School: “Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.”

International Diabetes Federation: “Type 2 diabetes.”

CDC: “Diabetes.”

NHS通知:“2型糖尿病”。

美国糖尿病协会:“皮肤并发症”,“糖尿病和听力损失”。

阿尔茨海默氏症协会:“阿尔茨海默氏病和2型糖尿病:一个不断增长的连接”

UpToDate: “Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus.”

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